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中小学英语教师基础知识资料(4)-杨海蒂英语

四、 形容词、副词

(一) 知识概要

形容词的用法很活跃,在英语中用处也很多,但英语中修饰可数名词和不可数名词的修饰语和词组有时不同,要特别加以注意。下面将初中学习阶段中遇到的修饰可 数名词的词和词组归纳如下:many, no, several, some, a few, a lot, lots, plenty, plenty of, a lot of, a large number of, enough。而修饰不可数名词的词或词组如下:much, no, some, a lot, a great deal, lots, plenty, a lot of, plenty of。 其中some, no, a lot of, plenty of既可修饰可数名词又可修饰不可数名词。 英语中形容词与副词有原级、比较级、最高级之分,其规则如下:

构词法 原 级 比较级 最高级 加er,或est Tall

young taller

younger

tallest

youngest

只加r或st nice

large

nicer

larger

nicest

largest

重读闭音节末尾只有一个辅音 字母时双写该字母加er、est big

fat

hot

bigger

fatter

hotter

biggest

fattest

hottest

不规则变化的形容词或副词:

原 级 比较级 最高级

good better best

Well better best

bad worse worst

badly worse worst

many more most

most more most

little less lest

far farther

further

farthest

furthest

old older

elder

oldest

eldest

要注意的是许多形容词同时又是副词,如:back, all, alone, either, far, high, slow等。而有些形容词则要经过一定变化才能转为副词,其规律如下:

构词法 形容词 副 词

一般加ly Careful

kind

carefully

kindly

尾是y时将y变成i加ly Happy

busy

easy

Happily

busily

easily

其 他 true

terrible

full

possible

shy

whole

truly

terribly

fully

possibly

shyly

wholly

在学习过程中要注意其变化。

此外并不是所有副词都可以修饰比较级和最高级形容词。能修饰比较级的有:much, yet, far, still, a great deal, even 和a little. 能修饰最高级的有:the very, much the, far等。

(二) 正误辨析

[误] The young likes playing football very much.

[正] The young like playing football very much.

[析] 定冠词加形容词表示一类人,应作复数看待。而定冠词加形容词表示抽象事物时则要看作单数,如:The beautiful is not always kindness.美丽并不总代表善良。

[误] The danger has gone, so the worst are over.

[正] The danger has gone, so the worst is over.

[析] 意为:"危险已经过去,最困难的状况已结束。"用定冠词加最高级形容词作主语时应看作单数形式。

[误] It is the gold age of the young.

[正] It is the golden age of the young.

[析] golden在英语中多用于比喻,如:golden hair金发,gulden voice金嗓子。而gold多用于表达金质的,如:a gold bar金条,a gold coin金币,但gold fish 金鱼例外。

[误] She is a warm heart woman.

[正] She is a warm?hearted woman.

[析] 英语形容词的构词法很多,其中之一是由形容词,或数词,加名词加ed构成,如: warm?hoarted 热心肠的,white?haired 白毛的

[误] There is an alive fish in the pool.

[正] There is a living fish in the pool.

[析] 在初中范围内所学到的以a字母开头的形容词一般不能作定语,只能作表语。如:The fish is alive.(鱼还活着)这样的形容词有:alive, alike, alone, asleep, afraid, awake等。

[误] The ill man nearly died.

[正] The sick man nearly died.

[析] ill一般不作定语来形容某人有病,而要用sick,但作表语时则都可以。如:He is ill sick, ill作定语时则另有他意,如:ill luck (厄运),ill nature(天性恶劣),ill temper(心绪不好)

[误] I have important something to tell you.

[正] I have something important to tell you.

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