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中小学英语教师基础知识资料(3)-杨海蒂英语

中小学英语教师基础知识资料(3)

三、 代词

(一) 知识概要

英语中代词可以分为人称代词、物主代词、反身代词、指示代词、疑问代词、不定代词。 人称代词主要有主格和宾格之别。请看下表

人称 我 你 他 她 它 我们 你们 他们

主格 i you he she it we you they

宾格 me you him her it us you them

物主代词分形容词性物主代词和名词性物主代词两种。请看下表?

人称 我的 你的 他的 她的 它的 我们的 你们的 他们的

形容词性 my your his her its ours your they

名词性 mine yours his hers its ours yours theirs

反身代词可见下表

人称 我 你 他 她 它 我们 你们 他们

反身代词 myself yourself himself herself itself ourselves yourself themselves

指示代词主要有this, that, these, those

疑问代词有:who, whom whose, what, which,

还有疑问副词when, how, where, why。

不定代词在初中课本中主要有some, any, many, much, each, neither, other, another, all, both, one, none, either…

(二) 正误辨析

[误]Tom***9;s mother is taller than my.

[正]Tom***9;s mother is taller than mine.

[析]形容词性物主代词可以作定语,也就是讲它可以作形容词,如:my book,而这句话的意思是:汤姆的妈妈比我的妈妈高。比较的对象是my mother,也就是mine。

[误]We have a lot of homework to do today. So we need two or three hours to finish them.

[正]We have a lot of homework to do today. So we need two or three hours to finish it.

[析]在应用代词时,要注意人称,格与数的一致性。这里it所代替的是不可数名词homework, 所以应用it。

[误]He and you should go to the library to return the books.

[正]You and he should go to the library to return the books.

[析]这主要是英语习惯上的用法。当两个以上的人称代词并列时其排列顺序一般为you, he, she, I,而复数时为we, you, they:如男女并列时,应先男后女,如:He and she …如果在表示不好意思,承担责任时,单数时用,I, he, she, you, 复数时用They, you, we, 如:Tom and I are good friends.

You, he and I must go to play the game for our team this afternoon.

We, you and they have been there before.

I, he and you have to pay for it.

[误]He or his brother is doing their homework.

[正]He or his brother is doing his homework.

[析]由either…or, neither…nor, or 连接两个主语时,如果两主语是单数时,用单数代词,如两主语是复数时,用复数代词,如:Either teachers or students want to do their best to help the old man.如是一单一复两名词时,一般将单数名词放在前,复数名词放在后,要用复数代词,如:The teacher or his students will clean their classroom together.

[误]His brother is taller than him.

[正]His brother is taller than he.

[析]than是连词,其后应视为省略句,than he is.所以要注意区分其主格与宾格的用法。

I like you as much as she.

[正]I like you as much as her.

[析]as…as 其后也应看作是省略句。应为as I like her.所以应用宾格。而第一句应译为我像她那样喜欢你。两句语法都是对的但含义不同。

[误]Myself did it yesterday.

[正]I myself did it yesterday.

[正]I did it myself yesterday.

[析]反身代词不可作主语,但可以用作主语的同位语。

[误]Take care of ourselves.

[正]Take care of yourselves .(yourself)

[析]祈始句的主语应看作第二人称you.

[误]Please bring your daughter with yourself.

[正]Please bring your daughter with you.

[析]反身代词不能作介词宾语,除非是由不及物动词与介词组成的动词短语,如: The old woman spoke to herself.

[误]Make yourself home.

[正]Make yourself at home.

[析]这是英语中的习惯用法,意为“像在家里一样”。这样的用法还有:

enjoy oneself 玩得开心make yourself at home 像在家中一样

help yourself to something 自己拿某物lost oneself 迷路

seat oneself 就坐dress oneself 穿衣

[误]— Who***9;s this speaking.— That***9;s Mary.

[正]— Who***9;s that speaking.— This is Mary.

[析]在电话用语中,this指讲话人自己,而that指对方。

[误]The days in summer are longer than this in winter.

[正]The days in summer are longer than those in winter.

[析]在比较句中往往为了避免重复,可以用that或those取代前面提到的事物,如是单数时用that,复数时用those,如:The weather in Beijing is hotter than that in Chang Chun.

[误]It is so a good book that everyone likes to read.

[正]It is such a good book that everyone likes to read.

[正]It is so good a book that everyone likes to read.

[析]在可数名词单数时可用so+形容词+不定冠词+名词+that从句,也可用such+不定冠词+形容词+that从句。在不可数名词或可数名词复数 时,只用such, 如:It is such good weather that I want to go swimming. They are such good books that I want to buy them all.在many, much, few, little这4个词前仅能用so,如: She has so much money that she can buy everything she wants.而在so与that之间仅存形容词时,则不能用such,如:She is so sweet that everyone likes her.

[误]I want to buy a same dictionary as yours.

[正]I want to buy the same dictionary as yours.

[析]same与定冠词the是固定搭配不可更改。这样的用法还有all the same(仍然)。

[误]— I hope she might pass the exam.— I don***9;t hope so.

[正]— I hope she might pass the exam.— I hope not.

[析]在作肯定回答时,I think so. I hope so. I believe so.但作否定回答时为:I don***9;t think so. I hope/believe not.

[误]— He studied very hard this term.— So she did.

[正]— He studied very hard this term.— So did she.

[误]— English is difficult to learn.— So is it.

[正]— English is difficult to learn.— So it is.

[析]在对话中如果某一动作同时适用于两个主语,这时在答语中要用缩写且要用倒装句。如第一组句,即studied hard既适用于he,也适用于she.但答语仅仅是对前句的重复,即仅仅是第一句的缩写时则不要用倒装句。如第二组句子为:英语难学。答语为:是的,难 学。这时缩写的答语不要用倒装句。

[误]Everyone should do one***9;s best.

[正]Everyone should do his best.

[析]one作代词时,它的复数形式是ones,所有格形式是one***9;s,反身代词为oneself.如果讲One should do one***9;s best.则是对句。如果one与别的词组成其他词,如: someone, anyone, everyone或only one 则要用his/her,来作其所有格形式。

[误]— Who won the game?— None.

[正]— Who won the game?— No one.

[析]由who提问的句子的否定回答中的简略说法是no one,而由How many提问的句子的否定回答中的简略语是None.如:How many books are there? None.

[误]There are many trees on either sides of the street.

[正]There are many trees on either side of the street.

[正]There are many trees on both sides of the street.

[析]either作代词时由两个含意,其一是两者中随便哪一个,如:You can take either.其二是两者中的每一个。但要注意的是either后要加单数名词,如果作主语则谓语动词也要用单数形式。

[误]Either you or I are right.

[正]Either you or I am right.

[析]在either…or,或neither…nor连接两个主语时,其谓语动词要与和其相近的那个主语相配。

[误]I have three sisters. Neither of them is a doctor.

[正]I have three sisters. None of them is a doctor.

[析]neither用于两者中无一是,而none则用于多于两者中的人或事物无一是。

[误]He doesn***9;t like Beijing opera. I don***9;t like too.

[正]He doesn***9;t like Beijing opera, I don***9;t like either.

[析]either作为“也”讲时,要用于否定句中,而too则用于肯定句中。

[误]We like both this little boy.

[正]We both like this little boy.

[析]both作同位语时,它在句中的位置有:在be动词之后,如:We are both students.在实意动词之前,如:The parents both want to go to the cinema.用于第一助动词之后,如:We have both read these English novels.使用时要注意以下句子的实际含意:Both of us are not right.应译为:我们俩不都对。Neither of us is right.才应译为:我俩都不对。又如:I can***9;t give you both of the books.意为:两本书我不能全给你,而I can***9;t give you either of the books.才为:两本书我全不能给你。

[误]We each has a ticket for the concert.

[正]We each have a ticket for the concert.

[析]each作句子主语时其谓语动词要用单数形式,如:Each of us wants to learn English well,但each作同位语时,则应以原名词的数为准。

[误]Every of us has to pass the exam.

[正]Each of us has to pass the exam.

[析]every只可作形容词,不可作代词,而each既可作形容词,又可作代词,在作形容词时each侧重强调个体,而every 则侧重于全体。

[误]Everyone of us should do housework two hours a day.

[正]Every one of us should do housework two hours a day.

[析]everyone不可与of结构相连接使用,而every one则可以这样用。

[误]I should read English everyday.

[正]I should read English every day.

[析]要注意的是every day是“每天”,而everyday则是形容词为“日常的”。如:everyday English日常英语,everyday life日常生活。

[误]There are trees on every sides of the street.

[正]There are trees on each side of the street.

[析]every用于三者或三者以上的每一个,而each用于二者或二者以上的每一个。因为街道只有两侧,所以只能用each而不能用every.

[误]All my parents are engineers.

[正]Both my parents are engineers.

[析]all用于三者或三者以上的全部,而both 则用于两者的全部。

[误]All of students might make some mistakes.

[正]All of the students might make some mistakes.

[正]All students might make some mistakes.

[析]非特指的名词前可用all但不可用all of结构,也就是讲all of结构后面的名词前一定要有定冠词。其他与all有关的习惯用法还有:

all the year round, all week, all day, all winter

[误]The all village was flooded.

[正]All the village was flooded.

[析]all作修饰语时要用在所有修饰词之前。

[误]The post office is on other side of the street.

[正]The post office is on the other side of the street.

[析]单数可数名词如在泛指某一个时用another,而特指时则要用the other,因街道只有两边,而不在这边需定是在另一边,所以要用特指。请参考下表的用法以便于记忆。

单数 复数

泛指 another形容词 作定语 作名词

another代词 other others

特指 the other形容词

the other代词

the other the others

[误]There are ten students here Where are the others students?

[正]There are ten students here.Where are the others?

[正]There are ten students here Where are the other students?

[析]the others=the other students.

[误]The old man has two sons. One is a teacher, another is a doctor.

[正]The old man has two sons. One is a teacher, the other is a doctor.

[析]another用于泛指,如:Is it far from here to the station?I***9;m sorry. I have no idea. One may say it is quite near; another may say it is far from here.但在特指时则要用the other.它可以用作定语,the other one,也可以用作代词the other,但the other用作代词时它的含意一定是单数。如果指三者或者三者以上的情况时,则要用one…another…the other.或者one…a second…the third…

[误]Some people like sports. The others like reading.

[正]Some people like sports. Others like reading.

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