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中小学英语教师基础知识资料(2)-杨海蒂英语

中小学英语教师基础知识资料(2)

二、 冠词

(一) 知识概要

冠词在英语中只有3个词,分为两类:不定冠词a与an,定冠词the。 a用在以辅音开始的单数名词前,an用于以元音开始的单词前。不定冠词用来表示一类事物中泛指的某一事物,而定冠词则用于特指的某一个或某些事物,可用于不可数名词、可数名词单数及可数名词复数前。

(二) 正误辨析

[误]This building is an university.

[正]This building is a university.

[析]a用于以辅音音素开始的单词前,而an用于以元音音素开始的单词前,而不是元音字母开头的单词前。university的第一个音素是[j],所以 用a而不要用an。又如:There is a “n” in the word.是错句,应为:There is an “n”in the word.因字母n的发音的第一个音素是元音。要注意的还有hour因其第一个字母h不发音,所以应该用an hour。例如:

I need an hour to finish the work.

It is a useful dictionary.

It is a European country.

I bought a used car.

[误]I need a umbrella because it looks like raining.

[正]I need an umbrella because it looks like raining.

[析]因umbrella的第一个音素是元音,所以应用an.常用的情况有:an old man, an English teacher, an elephant, an idea, an hour ago, an honest boy…。

[误]“Can you help me” “Sorry, I'm in hurry.”

[正]“Can you help me” “Sorry. I'm in a hurry.”

[析]不定冠词的主要用法如下:

1. 用来表示一类人或事物,如:She is a teacher.

2. 指某一类人或事物中的一个,如:An elephant is bigger than a horse.

3. 泛指某一人或事物,如:A man is waiting for you at the school gate.

4. 相当于“one”的概念,如:I just bought a new dictionary.

5. 其主要的难点是用在固定词组中:

如:have a walk/a rest /a look

又如:in a hurry 匆匆忙忙

make a face 作鬼脸

do somebody a favour 帮某人忙

a number of =many

又如:have a good time (玩得好)

have a cold (感冒)

have a headache (头痛)

have a break=have a rest

[误]I bought the dictionary yesterday. A dictionary is very good.

[正]I bought a dictionary yesterday. The dictionary is very good.

[析]在文章中第一次提到某物时用不定冠词,而第二次提到时用定冠词。

[误]Please turn off lights before you leave.

[正]Please turn off the lights before you leave.

[析]虽然是第一次提到某物但说话双方均知其所指,也应用定冠词。

[误]There are nine planets around a sun.

[正]There are nine planets around the sun.

[析]世上独一无二的天体等名词前应加定冠词,如:the earth, the moon, the sun, the sky, the sea.

[误]I live on a second floor of this building.

[正]I live on the second floor of this building.

[析]在序数词,形容词最高级前要用定冠词。如:He is the oldest in the family.

[误]I want to learn the second language this term.

[正]I want to learn a second language this term.

[析]在序数词的含意不是顺序中的第一第二,而其意在于再学一个,再来一个时,应用a,本句的意思应为:这学期我要学一门第二外语。

[误]Mississippi is one of the longest rivers in the world.

[正]The Mississippi is one of the longest rivers in the world.

[析]在河流名称前应加定冠词,如:the Yellow River(黄河)。

[误]Look, there are Alp.

[误]Look, there are the Alp.

[正]Look, there are the Alps.

[析]具体的某一座山不加定冠词,如:Mountain Tai.但在山名称前加定冠词后,其山名要加s,来表示山脉。the Alps即为阿尔卑斯山脉。如:The Alps are in the center of Europe.

[误]Times is one of the oldest newspapers in the world.

[正]The Times is one of the oldest newspapers in the world.

[析]报刊名称前应加定冠词。

[误]Rich are not always happy.

[正]The rich are not always happy.

[析]在形容词前加定冠词表示一类人,而在姓的前面加定冠词,姓后加s表示某一家,如:The turners are going to move to New York.

[误]I like to eat bread for breakfast. Bread sells in this shop is very good.

[正]I like to eat bread for breakfast. The bread sells in this shop is very good.

[析]物质名词特指时也应加定冠词。

[误]The sun rises in east.

[正]The sun rises in the east.

[析]在方向、方位前应用定冠词,如:in the east, in the west, in the north, in the south, in the direction 及in the past, in the future

[误]Do you know who invented telephone

[正]Do you know who invented the telephone

[析]在特定和专有事物或名称前要加定冠词,

如:the English Channel 英吉利海峡

the Panama Canal 巴拿马运河

the Suez Canal 苏伊士运河

[误]Would you please buy some food for the supper

[正]Would you please buy some food for supper

[析]泛指一日三餐前无定冠词。

[误]I like to climb the mountain in the autumn.

[正]I like to climb the mountain in autumn.

[析]一年四季前不用定冠词,如:Spring is the best season in a year.

[误]Sometimes my parents come to school to see me.

[正]Sometimes my parents come to the school to see me.

[析]有些名词被用作其本身原来所含目的时不加冠词,如:go to school上学,leave school(辍学),after school(放学),但如果当建筑物讲时应加冠词,如例句中其父母来校不是上学,而是看望孩子,则要加定冠词。又如,He was in hospital for two days.(他在医院住院两天了。)而:He went to the hospital to see his mother.他去医院看望他的母亲。

[误]I bought a same dictionary as she bought.

[正]I bought the same dictionary as she bought.

[析]在惯用法the same, the only, the very前的定冠词不可换为不定冠词。

[误]The police caught the thief by his arm.

[正]The police caught the thief by the arm.

[析]这是英文表达法与中文的明显不同之处,也是初学者极易忽视之处。在英语中的某些动词,如:catch(抓),take(拿),strike (打),pat(拍),hit(击),hold(握),pull(拉)…动词后应加人,再加介词on, by, in, with…之后要加定冠词,再加人体的某一部位。这时的定冠词千万不要换作his, her, their, 等词。

[误]He was paid by hour.

[正]He was paid by the hour.

[析]by和计量单位之间要有定冠词。这句话应译为:他的工资是按小时计算的。

[误]I went to New York by his car.

[正]I went to New York by car.

[正]I went to New York in his car.

[析]by仅仅与交通工具相连表示应用某种工具,而加了别的修饰词后其前面的介词也应作相应的转换。如:by car (坐小汽车)by taxi (坐出租车)by bike (骑自行车)by water (乘船)by air (乘飞机)by sea (乘船)

[误]Mary began to learn how to play piano when she was three.

[正]Mary began to learn how to play the piano when she was three.

[析]在乐器前要加定冠词,而在球类游戏之前则不要加冠词,如:They like to play bridge when they are free. (他们空闲时爱打桥牌)

[误]The little boy wanted to go to cinema.

[正]The little boy wanted to go to the cinema.

[析]英语中虽有一些名词与go to连用时不加定冠词,以表示该名词的内涵,如:go to school (上学),go to bed(睡觉)等,但去看电影则例外,要用go to the cinema.这也是语言的一个特点。

[误]I live at 105 the Lake street.

[正]I live at 105 Lake Street.

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