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中小学英语教师基础知识资料(1)-杨海蒂英语

第一篇 词法一、 名词(一) 知识概要:名词的概念在不同的语法教课书中有不同的解释和分类方法,但就实际应用来讲还是不要过分地追求其理论概念,

第一篇 词法

一、 名词

(一) 知识概要

名词的概念在不同的语法教课书中有不同的解释和分类方法,但就实际应用来讲还是不要过分地追求其理论概念,而更多的要把注意力放在其应用上来。我们不妨把 它分为两大类:专有名词与普通名词。顾名思义,专有名词是指:个人、事物、机关等所专有的名称,如,the Great Wall, America…它们是不能随意变动的。而普通名词中则包括个体名词,如pen, worker…它表示单一的个体人或事物;集体名词,如:family,class, team,它表示的是由若干个个体组成的集合体;物质名词,如:water,paper…它表示的是一种物质,原材料;而后一种是抽象名词, 如:work, time…它表示着一种在实际生活中看不见、摸不到,但却与实际生活紧密相关的某些动作、状态、品质的抽象概念。见下表。

名词一览表

种类

专有名词

London, John, the Communist Party of China

普 通 名 词 类名词 nurse, boy, worker, pencil, dog, table

集体名词 class, family, army, police, team, people

物质名词 water, steel, glass, cotton, wood, sand

抽象名词 happiness, love, work, life, courage, honest

功用

主语 My family is now in New York.

表语 His father is a scientist.

宾语 We love our great motherland.

宾语补足语 He made London the base for his work.

定语 The girls are making paper flowesrs.

状语 The car cost him 1000 dollars.

同位语 Mr Brown, a famous scientist, will come here.

名词在使用中的难点在于名词的数,即可数名词与不可数名词的实际应用。不可数名词不能用数字计算,所以它通常只有单数形式。它包含有专有名词、物质名词、 抽象名词等,如:English,air,water,cotton,work…可数名词是可以用数量加以计算的名词,所以它具有单数形式和复数形式两 种。可数名词复数形式的构成规律是:

1. 一般情况加s,如:pen—pens, doctor—doctors,boy—boys,其读音规则是在清辅音后读[s],在元音和浊辅音后读[z]。如:map—map , boy—boys.

2. 在以s,sh,ch,x结尾的名词后面加es,如:bus—buses,class—classes,其读音为[iz]。

3. 以ce,se,ze,(d)ge结尾的名词加s,其读音为[iz]。

4. 以辅音字母加y结尾的名词,要将y变为i再加es,读作[z],如:factory—factories,country—countries, family—families.但要注意的是以元音字母加y结尾的名词的复数形式只加s,如:boy—boys,day—days。

5. 以o结尾的名词的复数形式一般要加es,但如果o前面是元音字母或外来词,缩写词以o结尾的则只加s,如:tomato—tomatoes,hero—heroes;photo—photos,radio—radios,piano—pianos

6. 以f或fe结尾的名词的复数形式要将f或fe变为v再加es,如:knife—knives, leaf—leaves, 但有些例外的词如roof的复数形式是roofs。

7. 不规则名词的复数形式是要单个记忆的,它没有规律可循,如:man—men,woman—women, child—children, foot—feet,tooth—teeth, mouse—mice

8. 单复同形的名词有:fish, sheep,deer…

9. 单数形式但其意为复数的名词有:people,police等。 名词还有格的变化,其主格可作主语,宾格可作宾语。还有所有格,用来表示人或物的所有, 以及领属关系。表示有生命的名词的所有格其单数形式是加's其复数形式是s',如其结尾不是s的复数形式仍加's,如:a student's room, students' rooms, Children's Day.在表示时间、距离、世界、国家……名词的所有格要用's,如:a twenty minutes' walk.但无生命名词的所有格则需须用of结构,如:the capital of our country, the colour of the flowers

(二) 正误辨析

[误]Please give me a paper.

[正]Please give me a piece of paper.

[析]不要认为可以数的名词就是可数名词,这种原因是对英语中可数与不可数名词的概念与中文中的能数与不能数相混淆了,所以造成了这样的错误,因 paper在英语中是属于物质名词一类,是不可数名词。而不可数名词要表达数量时,要用与之相关的量词来表达,如:two pieces of paper.

[误]Please give me two letter papers.

[正]Please give me two pieces of letter paper.

[析]paper作为纸讲是不可数名词,而作为报纸、考卷、文章讲时则是可数名词,如:Each student should write a paper on what he has learnt.

[误]My glasses is broken.

[正]My glasses are broken.

[误]I want to buy two shoes.

[正]I want to buy two pairs of shoes.

[析]英语中glasses—眼镜,shoes—鞋,trousers—裤子等由两部分组成的名词一般要用复数形式。如果要表示一副眼镜应用a pair of glasses而这时的谓语动词应与量词相一致。如:This pair of glasses is very good.

[误]May I borrow two radioes?

[正]May I borrow two radios?

[析]以o结尾的名词大都是用加es来表示其复数形式,但如果o前面是一个元音字母或外来语时则只加s就可以了。这样的词有zoo—zoos,piano—pianos.

[误]This is a Mary's dictionary.

[正]This is Mary's dictionary.

[析]如名词前有指示代词this, that, these those,及其他修饰词our,some, every, which, 或所有格时,则不要再加冠词。

[误]There are much people in the garden.

[正]There are many people in the garden.

[析]可数名词前应用many, few, a few, a lot of 来修饰,而people是可数名词,而且是复数名词,如:The people are planting trees here.

[误]I want a few water.

[正]I want a little water.

[析]不可数名词前可以用a little, little, a lot of, some来修饰,但不可用many,few来修饰。

[误]Thank you very much. Your family is very kind to me.

[正]Thank you very much. Your family are very kind to me.

[误]Tom's and Mary's family are waiting for us.

[正]Tom's and Mary's families are waiting for us.

[误]I'm sorry. I have to go. Tom's families are waiting for me.

[正]I'm sorry. I have to go. Tom's family are waiting for me.

[析]集合名词如果指某个集合的整体,则应视为单数,如指某个集合体中的个体则应视为复数。如:My family is a big family. When I came in, Tom's family were watching TV. 即汤姆一家人正在看电视。这样的集合名词有:family class, team等。

[误]Don't eat too much meats.

[正]Don't eat too much meat.

[误]Food in that restaurant is very good.

[正]The food in that restaurant is very good.

[析]物质名词是不可数名词,在使用中不可以加s,即它没有复数形式。也不可加不定冠词。但如果用于特指某一物质时可以加定冠词。如:I don't like drinking coffee, but the coffee in that cup is really good.

[误]Please give me two waters.

[正]Please give me two glasses of water.

[正]Please give me two coffees.

[析]物质名词如要加计量时,一定要加量词, 如:two cups of tea,two glasses of water,a glass of milk,a loaf of bread,

a piece of bread,a box of sugar,

a bowl of rice,a bottle of orange,

a bag of earth

例: I'll tell you a piece of good news.

但只有coffee可以用coffees来取代many cups of coffee.

[误]Can you give me the newspaper of today?

[正]Can you give me today's newspaper?

[析]加's构成所有格的名词一般应指有生命的人或物。如:Mary's hair,但在英文的习惯用法中对时间、距离等名词的所有格多用's来构成而不用of结构。如:a five minutes' walk.

[误]Please make a room for the lady in the school bus.

[正]Please make room for the lady in the school bus.

[析]英语中更多的名词是含有多种用法和多种含意的,

如: room为可数名词时为“房间”,如:I live in Room 5.而room为抽象名词时为空间上面一句话应译为“请给老妇人在校车上留个地方。”这样的词还有:glass 玻璃glasses 眼镜stone 石头a stone 一块石头time 时间two times 两次wood 木头woods 树林

[误]There is a flowers garden behind my house.

[正]There is a flower garden behind my house.

[析]名词除了在句中作主语、宾语、表语外,还可以用来修饰另一个名词,这时作修饰词的名词一般要用单数形式,如:shoe factory (鞋厂),post office(邮局),evening paper (晚报),night school (夜校),head master (校长),a law school (法律学院)。但也有例外,如:a goods train(货车),sports meeting (运动会)。

[误]My mother bought two fishes for supper this morning.

[正]My mother bought two fish for supper this morning.

[析]英语中有些名词单复同形,如:fish, deer, sheep, Chinese (中国人), means (方法)。所以应讲one fish, two fish, one Chinese, two Chinese. 如果讲There are five fishes in the pool.应译为池中有五种鱼而不是五条鱼。

[误]Mary expressed her thank to her boy friend.

[正]Mary expressed her thanks to her boy friend.

[析]英语中有些名词只有复数形式,如: thanks, greens, 而有些词单数形式与复数形式有不同的词意。如:clothes 为衣服,而cloth则是布, sand沙子,而sands是沙滩。

[误]I offered my son my congratulation on his success.

[正]I offered my son my congratulations on his success.

[析]英语中表示祝贺的词虽有单数形式,但一般要用其复数形式。如握手为shake hands.

[误]We have five German in this meeting.

[正]We have five Germans in this meeting.

[析]英国人Englishman的复数形式为Englishmen,而German 则要加s,因为它不是由国名与man的组合词。

[误]There are two As in this word.

[正]There are two A's in this word.

[析]在大写字母缩写形式的复数表达法中应加s,但如字母是A、I时,为了防止与As和Is相混,则要用's即A's,I's

[误]There are three 6s and two 3s in my telephone number.

[正]There are three 6's and two 3's in my telephone number.

[析]在小写字母与数字的复数形式表达法中要用's

[误]We have many woman teachers in our school.

[正]We have many women teachers in our school.

[析]一般组合名词变为复数形式时只将词中心词变为复数如:

half brother—half brothers(同父异母或同母异父的兄弟)daughter in law—daughtersin law,(儿媳)但要注意的是:man driver—men drivers(男司机) woman doctor—women doctors(女大夫)grown up—grown ups(成年人) 但是boy student—则变为boy students

[误]Physics are very difficult to learn.

[正]Physics is very difficult to learn.

[析]虽以s结尾但只能用作单数名词有:科学,学科名字:Physics. Mathematics politics游戏名称:bowls 专有名称:Niagara Falls(尼亚加拉瀑布) 其他名词:news(消息,新闻)

[误]There is a people in the room.

[正]There is a person in the room.

[正]There is a man in the room.

[析]people是复数名词,不可用作单数,如要用来讲一个人时应用a person, a man, a woman。同样的词有police.要讲一个警察时则要用a policeman, a policewoman。

[误]Where is my shoe?

[正]Where are my shoes?

[析]常常只用作复数形式的词有trousers, pants, shorts(短裤),socks(袜子),shoes, gloves(手套)。但如果只找其中的一个则要指明,这时还是应用单数形式。如:Where's my left glove?(我左手的手套在哪?)

[误]I paid five pennies for the sweet.

[正]I paid five pence for the sweet.

[析]英语中便士有两个复数形式pence用来表达一定数量的钱。而pennies是指一个个的硬币,如:I want to change this note for pennies.我想把这纸币换成硬币。(即一便士一个的硬币)。

[误]There are many fruit in the shop.

[正]There are many fruits in the shop.

[析]物质名词为不可数名词,但是用来表示种类时则可以用作可数名词,这里应译为各种各样的水果。

[误]There is a new car. It is Jone's and Mary's.

[正]There is a new car. It is Jone and Mary's.

[析]有生命名词的所有格,如果是单数名词则加's如:Mary's car.如果是以s结尾的复数名词则只在s后面加’如:teachers' offices.如果是复数名词但不是以s结尾,则只加’s,如:children's palace 组合名词的所有格是在最后一个词尾加's如:girl friend —girl friend's someone else—someone else's a week or three—a week or three's如名词后有同位语时,则应加在同位语的词尾上,如:It is my girl friend, Mary's car.要注意的是当两个名词并列时,如表示归两人共同所有,则在最后一个名词后面加's,如果表示分别所有则在两个名词后分别加's,如:This is Mary and Jone's home.即Mary与Jone是一家人。这是他们共同的家。而These are Mary's and Jone's homes.则应译为这里是Mary的家与Jone 的家。

[误]It is really beautiful. It is a work of nature.

[正]It is really beautiful. It is a Nature's work.


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