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中小学英语教师基础知识资料(5)-杨海蒂英语

五、 连 词

(一) 知识概要

连词是一种在句子与句子之间,短语之间以及名词等其他词语之间起连接作用的虚词,它不能单独作句子的成份。按其意义可分为并列连词和从属连词两大类。 并 列连词连接的双方是对等的。常有的并列连词有and, both…and, either…or, neither…nor, not only…but also, as well as等。但如果连接的两部分意义不趋向一致,意义有转折的并列连词有:but, however, while (而),only (只不过)。还有表示选择关系的并列连词,如:or, or else, otherwise… 再有的是连接双方,互为因果,或表示前因后果的连词有:for, so, therefore (因此),then等。 从属连词在初中范围内常常用来连接名词性从句,如:that, if, whether, 其次用来连接状语从句。其中有原因状语从句,常用的连接词有:when while, as, since, before, after, once, as soon as, until, till 连接条件状语的连词有:if, unless, as long as 等,而原因状语的连接词有because, since, as, now that (既然)。目的、结果、方式、比较、地点等状语从句的连接词有:so that, so…that, such…that, as…as, than, where… 它们在句子与文章中几乎无处不见。 具体用法见下表。

连词用法一览表

种类 功用 例句

并列连词 连接具有并列关系的 词 He knows neither English nor French.

短语 Are you going by bus or on foot?

分句 Mary was a good girl, but she had one shortcoming.

从属连词 引导: 状语从句 I***9;ll do it as you told me.

You will be late unless you hurry.

连接代词和连接副词 主语从句 What he said proved true.

When we***9;ll start has not been decided yet.

表语从句 This is why he didn***9;t come yesterday.

That is where he lives.

宾语从句 The man asked me which I liked best.?

I can***9;t understand why she is so late.

关系代词和关系副词 定语从句 Nicotine is a drug that gets one into the habit of smoking.?

He came last night when I was out.

(二) 正误辨析

[误] Both my parents are not here. They went to the concert just now.

[正] Neither of my parents is here. They went to the concert just now.

[析] 在英语中both一般用于肯定句中,如用于否定句中,其意义也不同于汉语,如:Both of us are not right. 在英语中应被理解为"我们俩不都对。"而Neither of us is right。 才能被理解为"我们俩无一正确"。

[误] He or his parents has some tickets for the film.

[正] He or his parents have some tickets for the film.

[析] 由or 连接两主语时,谓语动词应与相临近的那一个主语保持一致。

[误] You should study hard, and you won***9;t pass the exam.

[正] You should study hard, or you won***9;t pass the exam.

[析] or作为连词,这里的意思为"否则"。又如:Hurry up, or you***9;ll be late for school.

[误] Though he is poor, but he is ready to help others.

[正] Though he is poor, he is ready to help others.

[正] He is poor, but he is ready to help others.

[析] "虽然……但是"是中文中的常用结构,但在英文中用了"虽然"则不要用"但是",用了"但是"则不能再用"虽然",二者只可用其一。

[误] Either you or I are on duty.

[正] Either you or I am on duty.

[析] either…or 连接两个主语时,其谓语动词与相临近的一个主语相呼应,这也叫作就近原则。类似的用法还有or, neither… nor, not only…but also等。

[误] Tom is our English teacher and teaching English in our school now.

[正] Tom is our English teacher and is teaching English in our school now.

[析] 并列句中常常在后面的句子中作一些省略,以免重复,但不是所有词都可作任意的省略的。当你连接的是两个系动词时,后面的那个系动词不可省略,也就是讲连接的部分不可省略。

[误] My father likes swimming and to collect stamps.

[正] My father likes swimming and collecting stamps.

[析] 由并列连词连接的两个部分要保持相等的语法结构。如是动名词则都用动名词,如用不定式则都应用不定式,这是初学者要注意的一点。

[误] My father is reading a newspaper, I am doing my homework.

[正] My father is reading a newspaper while I am doing my homework.

[析] 两个并列句中间不可用逗号连接,要用并列连词来连接。

[误] My father asked me that if I wanted to learn how to drive.

[正] My father asked me if I wanted to learn how to drive.

[析] 宾语从句的连接词只能有一个不能重复使用。

[误] We will go both to Beijing and Shanghai.

[正] We will go to both Beijing and Shanghai.

[析] 用both…and…作连接词时,其相连接的部分结构也要相同。

[误] Not only Mary but also her brothers is going to dance.

[正] Not only Mary but also her brothers are going to dance.

[析] 由not only… but also…连接两个主语时,其重点在其后面的那一个主语,所以谓语形式应采用就近原则。

[误] The teacher as well as his students are coming.

[正] The teacher as well as his students is coming.

[析] 由as well as 连接两个主语时,谓语动词与as well as 后面的名词无关,而与前面的名词相一致。

[误] Tom does not swim nor play football.

[正] Tom does not swim or play football.

[析] nor主要用于连接句子的对等连词,如在否定句中连接某一部分时要用or, 但要注意句子的含意,如:This animal does not like a cow or a horse. 这个动物既不像牛也不像马。This animal does not like a cow but a horse. 这个动物不像牛而像马。

[误] For there is no light in the classroom. The students must have gone home.

[正] The students must have gone home, for there is no light in the classroom.

[析] 由for引出的原因状语从句在使用时要注意不能将该从句置于句 首,而应置于主句之后,并在主句与从句之间加一逗号。更要注意的是because, as, since与for 4个表示原因的连词中because是因果关系,是最强的一个,而for是最弱的一个。有些语法书中干脆把for叫做并列连词

[误] My brother will pass the English exam is no question.

[正] That my brother will pass the English exam is no question.

[析] 主语从句的引导词that是不可省略的。这一点不要和宾语从句的引导词相提并论。

[误] This map will show you how will you get to the hotel.

[正] This map will show you how you will get to the hotel.

[析] 名词性从句作宾语从句使用时,最重要的一点是要用陈述语句。特别要注意的是那些使用双宾语的动词,如:tell, ask, show…

[误] While the clock struch ten, all the lights went out.

[正] When the clock struck ten, all the lights went out.

[析] while是强调两个动作在同时进行中,如:While I am doing myhomework, my father is reading a newspaper. 而这里的when是"正当某某时刻","就在这一时间点上",其重点强调在某一特定时刻某动作的发生。

[误] While I was walking along the street yesterday, I met an old friend.

[正] When I was walking along the street yesterday, I met an old friend.

[析] 这里用when表达在一个动作的进行中,另一个动作突然发生了。正在进行的动作用一进行时态,而突然发生的动作用一般时态。

[误] While I heard the bad news I felt sad.

[正] When I heard the bad news, I felt sad.

[析] while不能表达一点儿的时间,即瞬时某一时间点。

[误] After school some students play football, or others go to the library.

[正] After school some students play football, while others go to the library.

[析] while在此处意为"而,然而"。

[误] She sang when she walked along the dark street.

[正] She sang as she walked along the dark street.

[析] as用于句中时,其要点是强调两个动作的同时进行。这里用when虽然不能讲是语法上的错误,但则看不出来小女孩因独自走黑暗的街道因害怕而唱歌的心情。

[误] I finished my homework until twelve o***9;clock last night.

[正] I didn***9;t finished my homework until twelve o***9;clock last night.

[正] I did my homework until twelve o***9;clock last night.

[析] until用在句中时其含义是某一动作一直持续到某时结束,那么句中的动词则一定要用持续性动词,如果要用瞬间,或截止性动词时一定要用否定句式。因截止 性动作的否定式应看作是持续性的动作。如离开leave是瞬间动作,因一出门即为离开了,而不离开则是长时间的。

[误] I have studied English when I was twelve.

[正] I have studied English since I was twelve.

[析] since引出的时间状语从句是表达了一个时间点,而这个时间点是主句动作的启始点,所以主句一般要用完成时态。

[误] Because he didn***9;t study hard, so he didn***9;t pass the exam.

[正] He didn***9;t pass the exam because he didn***9;t study hard.

[析] because 与 so在英文中两者不能并用的,只能在句中用其一。

[误] He was such excited that he could not speak.

[正] He was so excited that he could not speak.

[析] so与such的用法可以分为四种情况,①用于单数可数名词之前,其格式是such+不定冠词+形容词+单数可数名词,如:It is such a beautiful book that every child likes it. 也可以用so, 其格式是so+形容词+不定冠词+单数可数名词,如:It was so beautiful a book that every child likes it. ②在不可数名词前或可数名词复数前这时只能用such, 如:It is such good weather that we want to swim. 又如:They are such good students that they can pass the exam easily. ③在few, little, much, many 这4个字前只能用so而不能用such, 如:I have so much money that I can buy everything I want. ④当that前只有形容词或副词时,这时只能用so, 如:She is so beautiful that every one likes her. He ran so fast that I couldn***9;t keep up with him.

[误] He got up earlier this morning so as to that he could catch the first bus.

[正] He got up earlier this morning so as to catch the first bus.

[正] He got up so earlier that he could catch the first bus.

[析] so…that与so that的用法有相同之处,那就是其后接从句,而so as to 其后要接不定式,即动词原形。这样的词组还有:in order to。

[误] I want to buy same stamp that you have.

[正] I want to buy the same stamp as you have.

[析] the same…as (that)这是个固定用法,在same前的定冠词是不能少的。而the same…that意为"我要的就是那一个"。而the same…as为"要的是和……一样的东西"。

[误] Before I do not give you the answer, I***9;ll ask you some questions.

[正] Before I give you the answer, I***9;ll ask you some questions.

[析] 这种错误是由于受中文的影响。在中文中可以讲"我没给你答案前"。而英文用了before就不要再用否定句了。


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